Michael writes about his experience and offers tips for other aspiring entrepreneurs who wish to make a living with sports bookmaking.
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Price Per Head
This one is very similar to a point spread; the difference is that in baseball you are dealing with runs and not points.
A betting line on baseball will always depend largely on who the listed pitchers for the game are, and you are offered four different options:
Team action against a listed pitcher: This one is very similar to the previous one, the only difference is that here you need the opposite listed pitcher to start the game, the one for your chosen team can vary and you will still have action.
Listed Pitcher: When you are going to bet on a baseball game with listed pitchers, the ones listed for the two teams must start the game, and a pitcher is said to have started a match after throwing the initial pitch for his team.
On the other hand, if you were to bet on a 20 cent line, you would be getting a +125 line on Milwaukee, which means fewer profits, and even though it doesn’t sound as a lot of cash, when it comes to losing 10 cents on every dollar during a full baseball season, losses can be considerable.
Team action: This option allows you place a wager that doesn’t depend on pitchers, although if there is a change in listed pitchers, the odds might vary.
Michael Hill is an avid sports fan and a sports writer who has been in the betting and price per head industry for years. In baseball, an experienced bettor will always go for the “Dime Line”, which is a line with a ten cent difference between the favorite and the underdog (for example, a bet with the Angels as favorites at -145 and the Brewers as underdogs at +135.. So, as long as your chosen pitcher starts, you will have an active bet.
Even though it is said that you can get better profits when wagering on baseball, most people will avoid placing wagers on this sport because the betting lines might appear a bit different than the regular point spread, and because we want to shed some light on the subject, we have created this article.
This is the first element we should analyze. In the event of one of the listed pitchers not starting, then the wager is voided and the funds are returned to the player.
Here you are betting on the combined number of runs accumulated by both teams at the end of a given game, and on baseball, runs on extra innings will also count when the game has gone over nine innings.
Specifying a pitcher: When you bet using this option, you need to choose the pitcher for the team you are betting on, the one for the other team might vary
Make money betting on horse racing by learning how to handicap the horses properly by reading the articles on this site. In addition, I suggest using a system that has been proven. I use “How to ‘Place Bet’ on Favorites for a Living” by Mohammed Ali. In addition, I suggest that you concentrate on only one or two race tracks every horse betting season. I do not use a computer software to make money on betting on horse racing. By handicapping the horses and race conditions and studying the various mathematical models, you may make money betting on horse racing.
In addition, I suggest that you review all race results on a regular basis by studying copies of the “Daily Racing Form.” This newspaper can be instrumental in teaching you how to handicap properly and win more money. In addition, many of these blogs feature online-discussion forums on which you can swap information about effective betting methods and systems.
While there is no guarantee that anyone will win consistently by betting on horse races, recent developments in computer software and handicapping methods have reduced the amount of financial risk. In addition, track the performance of each horse and knowing whether the performance of the horse is improving with maturity or declining with age. I spend my time knowing the Southern California race tracks
You might also read online blogs about horse racing in order to make money by betting on horse racing. You will find the “Daily Racing Form” available at most newsstands, at horse racing venues and by direct-mail subscription as well as online downloads.
Finally, use online resources, such as TwinSpires, to make bets online and receive free tips on handicapping
. You will find that most horse racing blogs are moderated and maintained by experts who have developed reliable handicapping systems and are more than willing to share secrets with subscribers. You will also need to know how each horse performs in a variety of weather and track conditions and whether there is a synergy between the horse and a particular jockey
Some casinos use 8 decks and a shuffling machine to increase the house odds (or casino’s odds) and to make card counting almost impossible. Other Las Vegas casinos play with just one deck with small bets to attract players. Depending on how much money you play with, you can earn quite a bit of complimentary gifts and discounts at restaurants, stores and theatres.. This means if you hit a blackjack and your bet is $10 you’ll be paid $15 at a table with a 3:2 payout, but you’d win just $12 at a 6:5 paying table.
Player’s cards are cards offered at many casinos to gamblers who want to earn perks when they play. What is the strip? It’s about a 4 mile stretch of a street on Las Vegas Boulevard South.
If you’ve heard of Las Vegas, then I’d bet you’ve heard of the strip. With small decks, you’ll probably be seeing the better odds of 3:2, more and more, you’ll start to see rates of 6:5. It has one of the highest concentrations of quality casinos and entertainment in the city. Many tourists never leave it during their stay.
The odds in blackjack vary as much by casino as they do by table
Within each and every one of us is something called an Emotional Guidance System. All of your thoughts are created from past experiences and so your logical mind is working within your limited belief system.
When you remove the logical mind and really listen to what you’re feeling, you will always have access to the most accurate answer, since your feelings are an indication of what you’re moving towards. I knew before the game started that it wouldn’t. This helps me greatly in my decision making. “your emotions are a load of rubbish!” … So, I knew straight away that my team was going to lose or draw.
If you feel good, you’re attracting good things into your life.
If you feel bad, or neutral, then you’re attracting unwanted things into your life.
By asking yourself the question “how will I feel about this?”, you will always get a perfectly aligned response from your emotional guidance system. I’m not big on betting, but it is entirely possible to bet using your feelings as a judgment call.
If you start removing your attention from the logical mind and stop using your mind to make the decisions, then by relying on your emotions, you will very quickly begin to see that your emotions are always a perfect match to what you’re attracting.
As I was practicing this in a recent match I was watching, I noticed a horrible feeling within me. If they feel good, good things are coming. You may know it with a different name (gut instincts for example), but simply put the emotions that you feel, are always a perfect match to what you are currently attracting.
It was an uncomfortable game and didn’t bring me any joy. I’ve started practicing using my emotions to determine how the game will end up, before the game has even kicked off.
Your emotions are always a perfect reflection of what’s coming.
In the opening 10 minutes, we scored a goal and were 1-0 up. “they can’t predict the outcome!”.
Because I watch my team play, I am emotionally attached to the game. If they feel bad, bad things are coming.. Your logical mind can only make decisions upon what it already knows. Second half started and the opposing team took the lead and made it 2-1.
Is it possible to successfully place a bet and win it using the Law of Attraction? I’ve proved it possible.
By half-time it was 1-1. My logical mind started to kick in… It felt horrible and was definitely unwanted.
“How do I feel about this game?”
If I get a distinct feeling of “positiveness” then the game will be a success and will win.
If I feel pretty bad about the game then it will either be a draw or a loss.
If I feel nothing and am completely neutral, then I don’t make a decision.
Your emotions are your best method of making accurate decisions. The end result was a draw, 2-2.
How does all of this fit in with betting on events?
I’m an avid football (soccer) fan and I always enjoy watching my team play on television
T-11. Don’t be fooled, though, as Kuchar also finished 3rd at the Players but that is not winning. Patton Kizzire is 30 and still looking for his first PGA Tour win.
The Dean & DeLcua Invitational dates back to 1946. Bill Haas, Ryan Palmer – 45 to 1 odds each
The 2016 Dean & DeLuca golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 26-29, 2016, at the Colonial Country Club located in Fort Worth, Texas. Zach Johnson – 22 to 1
Jason Dufner has a win in 2016 and he’s finished second in this tournament twice in the past (2012, 2014). Ryan Palmer missed the cut last week. Adam Scott has two wins in 2016 and 13 total wins on the PGA Tour. After missing the cut in his two previous starts, Jimmy Walker tied for 24th last week. Jordan Spieth – 6 to 1
Other than a 5th place finish at the Arnold Palmer in March, Zach Johnson has not played well enough to win in 2016. Matt Kuchar – 14 to 1
4. Players like Phil Mickelson, Lee Trevino and Zach Johnson are tied for the second most wins with two each.
1. He won the Puerto Rico Open for his first career win at the end of March. Kirk missed the cut in his last start at the Players. Scott won this tournament in 2014 beating Jason Dufner in a playoff. Haas has six PGA Tour wins and he was second at the Valspar in March so he’s a mild threat to win this week. Ben Hogan holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five. Danny Lee has one win on tour and he finished tied for 18th last week. Louis Oosthuizen’s lone PGA win remains the 2010 British Open and he missed the cut last week.
6. But Jason Bohn did finish tied for 2nd in this tournament last year just one stroke off the lead.
Boo Weekley won this tournament in 2013. Charl Schwartzel tied for 58th place last week but that was his first tournament since he missed the cut at the Masters. At age 32, Kevin Kisner has one career win and he missed the cut in his last two starts. He’s a mild threat here to get his 6th PGA win here. In his last four tournaments he’s failed to crack the top 25 and he finished last week tied for 66th. Kevin Chappell – 28 to 1.
Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational at Colonial in Fort Worth, Texas!
Matt Kuchar shot -14 under last week to finish alone in 3rd place at the Byron Nelson. Kevin Na, Louis Oosthuizen, Patrick Reed, Jim Furyk – 33 to 1 odds each
Since winning the Texas Open for his 4th PGA Tour win on April 21st, Charley Hoffman finished 11th at the Zurich Classic, missed the cut at the Players and finished tied for 12th last week at the Byron Nelson. Jimmy Walker, Brandt Sendeker, Danny Lee, Jason Dufner – 40 to 1 odds each
T-17. Charley Hoffman – 25 to 1
T-7. Tony Finau tied for 12th last week. Jim Furyk has one win on tour since 2010 and he’s making just his third start back after wrist surgery. Brandt Snedeker has missed the cut in his last two starts and in three of his last four tournaments but he did tie for 2nd place here last year just one stroke off the lead.
5. Then a few notable golfers with much higher odds are listed along with comments why.
T-19. Patrick Reed has finished alone in 2nd place three times this season but has not won a tournament since January of 2015. He has three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2010.
David Toms won this tournament in 2011. While the meltdown is not a good sign, Jordan Spieth did miss the cut the week before at the Players in his first start since the Masters so he is rounding into form and he did tie for 2nd place in this tournament last year.
Bill Haas tied for 43rd place last week. Nuff said. Jordan Spieth was in position to win last week at the Byron Nelson playing with Brooks Koepka in the final pairing Sunday just two strokes back but Spieth shot a 74 and ended up tied for 18th place. He’s a big threat this week to win.
2. Chappell is lower odds here because he finished alone in 2nd place at the Players in his last start. Chris Kirk, Charl Schwartzel – 35 to 1 odds each
Listed below are the betting odds and comments for each player who has odds of 50 to 1 or less to win this week. Zach Johnson does have two wins in this tournament (2010, 2012).
At age 29, Kevin Chappell is still looking for his first PGA Tour win. Marc Leishman has one career win in 188 starts. Toms has 13 career PGA Tour wins including a major but he’s not won a tournament since 2011.
Adam Scott finished tied for 12th at the Players two weeks ago in his last start. Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March and he could play well this week.
T-13. Could he win again this year? Maybe, but who wants to bet on it?
Jason Bohn – 100 to 1 odds
Boo Weekley – 80 to 1 odds
Jason Bohn only has two career wins and his last win was in 2010 and he’s missed the cut in his last three PGA Tour starts. Adam Scott – 11 to 1
Chris Kirk is the defending champion in this tournament but that was the last of his four PGA Tour wins. Matt Kuchar has not won a PGA Tour event in over two years now and he should be higher odds to win this week.
3. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational.
Kevin Na has one career win in 314 starts. Chappell also finished alone in 2nd place at the RSM Classic and the Arnold Palmer this season so he’s been close to winning but he’s still a maiden on tour.
At odds of 6 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite this week to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational. Colt Knost, Tony Finau, Marc Leishman, Kevin Kisner, Patton Kizzire – 50 to 1 odds each
Colt Knost is 30 and he’s yet to win on tour but he tied for 3rd at the Players and was 4th last week in his last two starts. On top of that, Bohn suffered a heart attack during the Honda Classic back in February
In on-line poker you won’t ever need to be in person together with your opponent whereby live games you can observe your attacker so that you get the chance to determine any tells that they’re going to exhibit. You now are becoming to the facets of poker that cope with playing another players and not simply them you’re dealt. . The program of these sites happen to be produced by mainly several specialist developers plus they all try to provide you with as enjoyable and realistic an event as you possibly can that you should play casino poker online. Creativity in marketing and customer retention is crucial in the current competitive online entertainment business and something is only able to concentrate on the right players by understanding the players themselves. Playing inside a live game is very totally different from playing on-line poker.
casino and poker online need constant attention which is essential that you offer good customer care out of all languages of the target markets. You may either to setup and manage your personal customer care team otherwise allow the operator handle this for you personally.
Within the recent game playing industry events, which I joined, I overheard a discussion between two guys and one of them instructed another that using a casino website is a means to make quick money online. Locate a good home game or look
for a local card room if at all possible and go play a couple of times per month if you’re able to. This skill isn’t attainable in internet poker room play; you need to be sitting over the table out of your opponents to achieve this expertise. This is often a vital skill in enhancing your poker game. The majority of the well-known casino and poker online sites are run by reputable companies who’ve been within the gaming niche for quite a long time. Play casino and poker online to determine more hands and make use of the ease of a web-based poker site whenever you cannot get free from the home or simply possess a very little time to experience.
It usually takes a few weeks to possess your casino and poker online gaming site fully operational an internet-based, after which it’s your decision they are driving traffic towards your website. It is therefore vital that you stabilize your casino and poker online have fun with real live games to operate in your skills.
casino and poker online are a good spot to play if you have use of a card room in your town I’d recommend spent some play at live games. Most poker pros will agree the psychology of poker is an extremely important a part of the things they’re doing well. There aren’t many players who claim eternal loyalty to some gaming site and therefore the active gaming cycle on the particular site can vary from weeks to a few months. If you fancy a flutter you will get your fix. The administration of the site is going to be processed every day causing you to be enough time to concentrate on your online marketing strategy.
The immediacy from the internet has exposed a brave “new world “for gambler. Customer retention is with you
many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
Dr. It was so unusual at the time . The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
But, it doesn’t end there.
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
Update note:Dr. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. Memory Elvin Lewis
Dr. . Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
From a front-line perspective
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away ”in season”.
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
This makes little sense.
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St.
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
Less Than Zero
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet .
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
Mr. . Louis.
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). . 1952-1953).
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
Gateway to the West
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
The Road to Zero
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the ”Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
AIDS now had a face.
"I'm Candy - Fly Me!"
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves "The Village People". They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes - a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers "In the Navy" and "YMCA". More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
The dubious distinction of being America's "Patient Zero" - the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country - belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. . Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. . Louis, Missouri. His mother's name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as "gay cancer" in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as "gay cancer".
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role
Reportedly, over 75 percent of adult Canadians took part in the games last year in which the most popular games are lotteries and Scratch and Win cards.
Australia is the craziest country when it comes to gaming and gambling. Most profits go to education, arts and culture.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517
Era of Online Gambling
Italy. According to business advisory firm MAG Consulenti Associati, the electronic gaming makes up half of Italy’s total gaming revenues in first half of 2011.
Singapore offered the very first casino some years ago which then became the world’s third largest-gaming center after Macau and Las Vegas. Furthermore, the slot machines named pokies are the most favorite game in Australia with an estimated number of 75-80 percent of problem gamblers. H2 Gambling Capital has released the list of biggest gambling countries due to average gaming losses.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288
Top Online Gambling Mistakes
Australia: Biggest Gambling Country in the World
The most favorite gambling activity in Italy is electronic gaming machine. Although the government has imposed an entry fee of S$100 ($80.50) for citizens entering the casino, the country’s gaming revenue is expected to hit $6.4 billion in 2011 and outpace Las Vegas.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553
Interestingly enough, the country’s national lottery company, Veikkaus, belongs to the government and is operated by the ministry of education. In this country, gaming companies bet people on whether the central bank’s interest will increase or not.
Gambling’s Famous Icons
The potash-rich province of Saskatchewan is home to the biggest gamblers in Canada. Otherwise, Australia is the only country that allows online bets on sports but prevents gamblers from using the Internet to place bets during live games.
Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568
Las Vegas is well-known as the gambling industry of the world; however, American people are not the biggest gamblers on Earth
In addition, I suggest that you concentrate on only one or two race tracks every horse betting season. By handicapping the horses and race conditions and studying the various mathematical models, you may make money betting on horse racing.
You might also read online blogs about horse racing in order to make money by betting on horse racing. In addition, I suggest using a system that has been proven. You will find that most horse racing blogs are moderated and maintained by experts who have developed reliable handicapping systems and are more than willing to share secrets with subscribers. I use “How to ‘Place Bet’ on Favorites for a Living” by Mohammed Ali. You will find the “Daily Racing Form” available at most newsstands, at horse racing venues and by direct-mail subscription as well as online downloads.
While there is no guarantee that anyone will win consistently by betting on horse races, recent developments in computer software and handicapping methods have reduced the amount of financial risk. In addition, track the performance of each horse and knowing whether the performance of the horse is improving with maturity or declining with age. I spend my time knowing the Southern California race tracks. I do not use a computer software to make money on betting on horse racing. In addition, many of these blogs feature online-discussion forums on which you can swap information about effective betting methods and systems.
Make money betting on horse racing by learning how to handicap the horses properly by reading the articles on this site. You will also need to know how each horse performs in a variety of weather and track conditions and whether there is a synergy between the horse and a particular jockey. Finally, use online resources, such as TwinSpires, to make bets online and receive free tips on handicapping
In addition, I suggest that you review all race results on a regular basis by studying copies of the “Daily Racing Form.” This newspaper can be instrumental in teaching you how to handicap properly and win more money